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Crop Netting in a Greenhouse and Outdoors

Crop Netting in a Greenhouse and Outdoors

High density planting is possible with HORTOMALLAS® trellis netting

Hortomallas makes available this excellent introductory article about trellising to support vegetable crops, such as tomatoes or cucumbers, by using crop netting in a greenhouse or outdoors. Trellising vegetables, especially with growing netting, makes it possible to support the plants in an upright position and supports the heavy load that the crops have when high-yielding varieties or hybrids are planted. Keeping the foliage and fruits up off the ground reduces the incidence of plant disease and improves the quality of the produce. HORTOMALLAS® has the perfect trellis netting for keeping plants up off the ground (and thus avoiding disease and damage to the fruit) and for increasing the productive life of the plant (and thus increasing the harvest period as well).

tutorado en hortalizas

What does the trellising of vegetables aim to do?

A trellis using crop netting in a greenhouse or outdoors allows for high planting densities. When planted at a high density with the intention of having greater yield, the stems are not as rigid as when planted at a lower density, but by trellising the crop, the main stalk is reinforced so that it can bear the weight of the crop. Trellising is appropriate for high-yielding plants. When using high-yielding varieties or hybrids, the quantity and weight of the fruits makes it necessary to reinforce the stem and trellising accomplishes this. A case in point was the planting of sweet peppers such as Yolo Wonder that stood up to the weight of the fruits given that they were small and thin-walled, which made them lightweight fruit. A good mound of earth was sufficient for keeping the plant upright. Upon changing to modern hybrids, it became imperative to provide support for the plants in order for the plants to be able to stand up to the high yield of heavy, thick-walled fruits that the plants now produced. Without support, broken stems from excessively heavy fruit was common.

Trellising improves fruit quality.

. Other crops, such as cucumbers, that can be

grown with the plant on the ground have the problem of the fruits developing a light-green spot where the fruit touches the soil, which decreases its commercial value. This leaves one with no other choice than to trellis in order to have a quality product. By keeping the fruits up off the ground, there is a lower incidence of plant diseases which discolor and blemish the fruits.

Malla espaldera HORTOMALLAS

Trellising makes it possible to grow a crop certain times of the year when it would otherwise not be possible.

. The tomato, for example, has weak stems which with the weight of the foliage and fruits, lie down on the ground. During dry seasons or in arid zones, one can get away with growing tomatoes on the ground for industrial use. However, during rainy seasons or when there is the risk of rainfall, trellising tomatoes becomes obligatory in order to avoid diseases such as Alternaria stem canker, gray leaf spot, and buckeye rot of tomato, to mention just a few, as well as various fruit rots caused by fungus and bacteria which take away commercial value.

Trellising increases production in greenhouses

conditions and thereby reducing the presence of diseases, growing crops in greenhouses demands the use of trellising, because, given the high cost of greenhouses, it is necessary not only to use surface area to the greatest advantage but to also use air space to the greatest advantage. Crops such as melons are starting to be grown on the ground in greenhouses in Spain due to the lack of labor, but that is not the case in our Latin American countries.

Malla espaldera en cultivos de tomate.

Trellising generates rural employment

. Vegetables are labor intensive primarily because of the need for pruning and training to a trellis. A crop of tomatoes requires more labor than a crop of cabbage primarily because of the need for pruning and training to a trellis. In the state of California in the United States, tomatoes are grown spread out on the ground with mechanized planting and harvest. This results in the lowest cost tomato in the world in spite of being one of the countries with the highest cost of labor in the world.


Trellising techniques


In the case of yam and green beans and other climbing (vine) bean crops, one way of trellising with minimal costs for a small landholder is to let the plants entwine themselves on a crop of corn which is planted as a companion crop with the purpose of having the plants climb up the corn stalks. Wooden poles, metal pipes, and even concrete posts get used outdoors to support other crops. Inside professionally designed greenhouses, the mechanical design took into account wind and rain loads as well as the weight of a crop. For this reason, the greenhouse itself can be the support for crop netting in a greenhouse. In homemade greenhouses the support for the crop is usually independent of the structure since the structure is usually weaker. The trellises support wires or cables to which the crops attach themselves. In the state of Lara in Venezuela, small horizontal canes are often used instead of wire to support the crop.

tutoreo de pimiento con rafia

To tie up the crop, cord is used that can be made of plastic strands, with or without UV protection, or it can be made of natural fibers from plants of the agavaceous family. Passion fruit and grapes can be grown on arbors which have crisscrossing horizontal wires on top of which the crop can grow, as is done in the southern zone of the Maracaibo lake in Venezuela. However, more and more the vertical trellis technique is being used since yields are greater and it allows for the mechanical harvesting of the crop. In the case of grapes, all new plantings using current methods are now done with vertical trellising with several wires which make it possible to guide and organize the crop. In order to tie up tomato plants various pieces of twine are used, and each branch tied to the trellis in such a way as to not leave any branch untied. Any excess of stems is pruned in order to allow for air circulation in the crop.

The same technique is used for sweet peppers in zones such as the departments of Santander in Colombia and the state of Tachira in Venezuela. As a reference, we cite the experience we acquired during our time of service of providing technical assistance in Mesa de los Morenos and the town of La Grita, each of these towns being located in the above-mentioned fellow Latin American countries, respectively.

In greenhouses, pieces of twine are used which get tied to the base of the stem which spirals around whatever the support for the plant is. Lateral branches are reduced to leave only two or three horizontal branches per plant. This technique is used for tomatoes, sweet peppers, melons, and cucumbers, to mention just a few examples.

malla espaldera como sistema de tutoreo
It is important not to tie the twine tightly to the stem, in order to not obstruct the passage of nutrients and induce the development of adventitious roots due to the strangulation of the stem.

When grown outdoors, sweet peppers get enclosed between two vertical panels of trellising and the plants are then supported between the two panels. Lateral growth is restricted by neighboring plants. We also used this technique successfully in the case of eggplants. Flowers, such as carnations, chrysanthemums, and others, like to grow up through horizontally placed trellis netting which allows the plant to grow straight up without bending. Straight stems are necessary for quality cut flowers in the national and international markets. As for roses, they get trellised in a way similar to sweet peppers, which we just mentioned, but with wire and the stakes for the trellis have a spacing of one meter (40 inches).

Crop netting in a greenhouse or outdoors for trellising

We will do a special article about crop netting in a greenhouse and outdoors. This netting provides so many benefits for the crop and labor savings. We have used it for tomatoes, sweet peppers, yams, pumpkins, passion fruit, cucumber, gherkins, and climbing green beans. In the case of a crop of passion fruit, it reduces the amount of time until harvest and for sweet peppers and tomatoes, it cuts the labor required for caring for the crop in half.

Hortalizas en invernadero

En este documento hemos hecho una revisión general de las técnicas de tutoraje, usted debe utilizar la mas conveniente a su sistema de producción y a la disponibilidad de recursos, para recibir asesoramiento en este sentido le recomendamos visitar nuestro programa de asistencia técnica por Internet, si tiene alguna inquietud no dude en escribirnos.

High density planting is possible with HORTOMALLAS® trellis netting

Hortomallas makes available this excellent introductory article about trellising to support vegetable crops, such as tomatoes or cucumbers, by using crop netting in a greenhouse or outdoors. Trellising vegetables, especially with growing netting, makes it possible to support the plants in an upright position and supports the heavy load that the crops have when high-yielding varieties or hybrids are planted. Keeping the foliage and fruits up off the ground reduces the incidence of plant disease and improves the quality of the produce. HORTOMALLAS® has the perfect trellis netting for keeping plants up off the ground (and thus avoiding disease and damage to the fruit) and for increasing the productive life of the plant (and thus increasing the harvest period as well).

tutorado en hortalizas

What does the trellising of vegetables aim to do?

A trellis using crop netting in a greenhouse or outdoors allows for high planting densities. When planted at a high density with the intention of having greater yield, the stems are not as rigid as when planted at a lower density, but by trellising the crop, the main stalk is reinforced so that it can bear the weight of the crop. Trellising is appropriate for high-yielding plants. When using high-yielding varieties or hybrids, the quantity and weight of the fruits makes it necessary to reinforce the stem and trellising accomplishes this. A case in point was the planting of sweet peppers such as Yolo Wonder that stood up to the weight of the fruits given that they were small and thin-walled, which made them lightweight fruit. A good mound of earth was sufficient for keeping the plant upright. Upon changing to modern hybrids, it became imperative to provide support for the plants in order for the plants to be able to stand up to the high yield of heavy, thick-walled fruits that the plants now produced. Without support, broken stems from excessively heavy fruit was common.

Trellising improves fruit quality.

. Other crops, such as cucumbers, that can be

grown with the plant on the ground have the problem of the fruits developing a light-green spot where the fruit touches the soil, which decreases its commercial value. This leaves one with no other choice than to trellis in order to have a quality product. By keeping the fruits up off the ground, there is a lower incidence of plant diseases which discolor and blemish the fruits.

Malla espaldera HORTOMALLAS

Trellising makes it possible to grow a crop certain times of the year when it would otherwise not be possible.

. The tomato, for example, has weak stems which with the weight of the foliage and fruits, lie down on the ground. During dry seasons or in arid zones, one can get away with growing tomatoes on the ground for industrial use. However, during rainy seasons or when there is the risk of rainfall, trellising tomatoes becomes obligatory in order to avoid diseases such as Alternaria stem canker, gray leaf spot, and buckeye rot of tomato, to mention just a few, as well as various fruit rots caused by fungus and bacteria which take away commercial value.

Trellising increases production in greenhouses

conditions and thereby reducing the presence of diseases, growing crops in greenhouses demands the use of trellising, because, given the high cost of greenhouses, it is necessary not only to use surface area to the greatest advantage but to also use air space to the greatest advantage. Crops such as melons are starting to be grown on the ground in greenhouses in Spain due to the lack of labor, but that is not the case in our Latin American countries.

Malla espaldera en cultivos de tomate.

Trellising generates rural employment

. Vegetables are labor intensive primarily because of the need for pruning and training to a trellis. A crop of tomatoes requires more labor than a crop of cabbage primarily because of the need for pruning and training to a trellis. In the state of California in the United States, tomatoes are grown spread out on the ground with mechanized planting and harvest. This results in the lowest cost tomato in the world in spite of being one of the countries with the highest cost of labor in the world.


Trellising techniques


In the case of yam and green beans and other climbing (vine) bean crops, one way of trellising with minimal costs for a small landholder is to let the plants entwine themselves on a crop of corn which is planted as a companion crop with the purpose of having the plants climb up the corn stalks. Wooden poles, metal pipes, and even concrete posts get used outdoors to support other crops. Inside professionally designed greenhouses, the mechanical design took into account wind and rain loads as well as the weight of a crop. For this reason, the greenhouse itself can be the support for crop netting in a greenhouse. In homemade greenhouses the support for the crop is usually independent of the structure since the structure is usually weaker. The trellises support wires or cables to which the crops attach themselves. In the state of Lara in Venezuela, small horizontal canes are often used instead of wire to support the crop.

tutoreo de pimiento con rafia

To tie up the crop, cord is used that can be made of plastic strands, with or without UV protection, or it can be made of natural fibers from plants of the agavaceous family. Passion fruit and grapes can be grown on arbors which have crisscrossing horizontal wires on top of which the crop can grow, as is done in the southern zone of the Maracaibo lake in Venezuela. However, more and more the vertical trellis technique is being used since yields are greater and it allows for the mechanical harvesting of the crop. In the case of grapes, all new plantings using current methods are now done with vertical trellising with several wires which make it possible to guide and organize the crop. In order to tie up tomato plants various pieces of twine are used, and each branch tied to the trellis in such a way as to not leave any branch untied. Any excess of stems is pruned in order to allow for air circulation in the crop.

The same technique is used for sweet peppers in zones such as the departments of Santander in Colombia and the state of Tachira in Venezuela. As a reference, we cite the experience we acquired during our time of service of providing technical assistance in Mesa de los Morenos and the town of La Grita, each of these towns being located in the above-mentioned fellow Latin American countries, respectively.

In greenhouses, pieces of twine are used which get tied to the base of the stem which spirals around whatever the support for the plant is. Lateral branches are reduced to leave only two or three horizontal branches per plant. This technique is used for tomatoes, sweet peppers, melons, and cucumbers, to mention just a few examples.

malla espaldera como sistema de tutoreo
It is important not to tie the twine tightly to the stem, in order to not obstruct the passage of nutrients and induce the development of adventitious roots due to the strangulation of the stem.

When grown outdoors, sweet peppers get enclosed between two vertical panels of trellising and the plants are then supported between the two panels. Lateral growth is restricted by neighboring plants. We also used this technique successfully in the case of eggplants. Flowers, such as carnations, chrysanthemums, and others, like to grow up through horizontally placed trellis netting which allows the plant to grow straight up without bending. Straight stems are necessary for quality cut flowers in the national and international markets. As for roses, they get trellised in a way similar to sweet peppers, which we just mentioned, but with wire and the stakes for the trellis have a spacing of one meter (40 inches).

Crop netting in a greenhouse or outdoors for trellising

We will do a special article about crop netting in a greenhouse and outdoors. This netting provides so many benefits for the crop and labor savings. We have used it for tomatoes, sweet peppers, yams, pumpkins, passion fruit, cucumber, gherkins, and climbing green beans. In the case of a crop of passion fruit, it reduces the amount of time until harvest and for sweet peppers and tomatoes, it cuts the labor required for caring for the crop in half.

Hortalizas en invernadero

En este documento hemos hecho una revisión general de las técnicas de tutoraje, usted debe utilizar la mas conveniente a su sistema de producción y a la disponibilidad de recursos, para recibir asesoramiento en este sentido le recomendamos visitar nuestro programa de asistencia técnica por Internet, si tiene alguna inquietud no dude en escribirnos.

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