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Review: Productivity of grassland layer hen systems.

Review: Productivity of grassland layer hen systems.

Veterinary medicine students, faculty of agricultural sciences, Antioquia University, Medellin, Colombia.

March 2012 Summary. In recent years, extensive animal farming systems have been implement, in this case egg productivity from grassland birds. Which has given rise to a lot of unease among farmers as to whether these systems are financially viable or not. For that reason, a profitability study was carry out. Using a batch of 303 grassland hens in the Antioquia University’s Hacienda Vegas de la Clara. Located in the Gomez Plata municipality. However, due to a lack of recorded information, the results could not be conclusive. As a result, this review article analyses references and articles where the productivity of these systems. Has been examine, and uses this information as a basis for developing the project that is then present.

Key words: grassland hens, organic eggs, happy hens.

chickenmalla net protecting hens
There are many ways to raise poultry, so it is essential to know. What it requires to provide a good environment to the chickens.

Introduction:

Eggs are one of the products most consumed by humans and their consumption has increased rapidly. In recent years due to their high protein content and high nutritional value. This increased demand has led farmers to look for and investigate alternatives. To step up production systems, quality and final presentation for sales to consumers. Simultaneously, an increased awareness has been arouse as regards. Animal well-being – a subject which intensive egg production has received a lot of criticism about. This has given rise to an increased demand for more naturally produced animal products with higher quality guarantees.

Egg production in recent years has been base on intensive farming systems. Where the birds are keep inside chicken wire cages throughout their productive life (North and Bell, 1993). Therefore, extensive systems where the birds are give more natural surroundings have been promote. Which result in better quality products for the consumer as the birds are fed better quality. Healthy food, as well as lowering production costs for the farmers.

Unfortunately, at the present time, such alternative production systems have not been scientifically evaluate. A few institutions have dedicate themselves to investigating this field, among them the CIPAV foundation in Colombia. Which has identified a large number of foraging species that can be use for animal food in alternative production systems. And fit the optimal nutritional requirements (Vargas and Delgadillo, 1998). When bordering off the foraging area, such systems use a type of poultry net. hexagonal poultry netting or plastic chicken wire, to section off the grazing area.

black hens in henhouse
It has not been scientifically proven that alternative systems. Guarantee to be ideal for the breeding of birds.

This lack of scientific research is due to the lack of data about the true productivity of these systems

And that is where the problem with implementing such systems lies – it’s difficult to convince farmers of their financial viability. However, by consulting some reference works we can find some studies. That have been done on the productivity of these alternative systems.

Grassland poultry farming is a more environmentally friendly option and a suitable alternative for improving. The standard of living for small-scale farmers in under-developed countries (FAO, 2003). Layer hens are a good income source. Improve the nutrition of rural families and therefore help to fulfil family and social obligations.

Some of the most important benefits obtained from Productivity of grassland poultry farming

Is the improvement to immune systems. Lower stress levels compared with confined systems and a decreased mortality and morbidity rates (Salatin, 1993). In the reference works consult, much is say about the positive impact these systems could have in under-develop countries. As they involve lower production costs and can be manage simply by small-scale farmers. In addition to a simple chicken house. All they would need would be an area large enough for the chickens to graze. And a type of poultry netting to cordon off the area. They can obtain good quality results. Which would be of great benefit to the food sovereignty of rural communities as well. As being a more animal-friendly option.

As farming is becoming more and more centred around animal well-being. These systems have the advantage over more traditional methods. Allowing the birds to roam freely whilst being protect by a good quality poultry net.

Methods and materials:

Location

The review was carry out by studying the production of chickens grazing at Hacienda Vegas de La Clara located in the municipality of Gómez Plata in the department of Antioquia in addition to 10 studies carried out in different parts of the world such as: Spain, Mexico, Colombia, Central America and the Caribbean, Central-Eastern Venezuela, Cuba and the Humid Tropics.

Materials

A total of 303 birds (BabCock Brown) were use in the Hacienda Las Vegas de La Clara. And 12 studies on grazing hens were use for the review. The materials required were a chicken house (mobile or fixed) and hexagonal poultry wire.

Methodology

The studies carry out on hens in different places were review to evaluate the production. Viability of systems, bird well-being, costs of installing poultry net, diseases, mortality, losses and egg quality.

Results.

By means of the study carried out on grazing birds in the Hacienda Vegas of La Clara Located in the municipality of Gómez Plata. Productivity was verified by means of data collection that allowed us to arrive at this affirmation where parameters. Such as mortality, production, rejects/sales and daily bird food consumption allowed us to ascertain the productivity.

-Mortality: Measuring from week 20 onwards, and appears in the graph as the percentage of accumulated mortality. Plotted at intervals of 5 weeks (birds that died in those 5 weeks. And birds that died in the previous weeks. In other words, at the end of week 85 the total mortality rate of all weeks. Which was 24.9% – 73 birds died during the course of the whole production.

chicken net installed on garden
You must choose the most suitable system for your economy to raise chickens.

– Production: The percentage of production is plott every 5 weeks, and shows the percentage that occurred in that specific week. The peak of production occurred between weeks 34 and 35 (94.4%).

– Discarded/sold: No birds were discard, so only those that were sell were measure and the percentage accumulate. The birds sold in those 5 weeks + the birds that were sell in the previous

weeks. The 85th week represents the total percentage of birds sold during the whole production process.

– Consumption: Plotted every 5 weeks. And shows the amount of food in grams that was consum per bird in 5 weeks. In week 20 shows the consumption of only 3 weeks (18,19 and 20).

The total consumption if grams per bird per week during the whole production was 50,664 gr.

In the variable profitability that we wanted to find in this study we found some difficulties. Such as lack of information regarding investment in materials such as poultry nets. Budget, profits and losses, which did not allow us to fully complete the research. Due to this shortcoming we plan to conduct a review of grazing hen farming systems. Covering several articles in which these studies were carry out. Another issue has been that the information available is not very specific and is focuse only on profitability studies.

Productivity of poultry
A good option is the use of nets for poultry. They avoid the attack of predators, protecting the hens.

The most published and most specific results were those regarding productivity and animal welfare. Based on all the articles that we reviewed. The results coincided with productivity for small-scale producers, since for them it is financially feasible. It was also show that when operated in conjunction with a mobile chicken house. And a roaming area sectioned off with chicken wire. Operations worked better as losses from robberies and predator, as well as diseases in humid climates, were all avoided.

The effect of the analysis was not statistically significant as regards food consumption and egg weight. But it was significant for the other response variables evaluate.

Discussion.

From the results found, grazing hen farming systems can be consider to be economically viable. But not enough to merit large investments as they do not produce. The kind of figures that intensive farming systems can handle. They are able to cope with 2000 at the most. A figure which is not very attractive to a large-scale producer. However, these systems favour small-scale producers. Who are more inclined to manage this type of extensive system. And it also has a positive impact on the food sovereignty issue (6).

It has also been find that the eggs of grazing hens are of better nutritional quality due to the more varied diet given to them. Not eating just concentrated foods or maize, but also forages and worms (2). The low cost of infrastructure and food must also be take into account. Although of course they will depend on who manages the production (1). Animal welfare in this case is also respect by keeping the birds in a more natural environment. Where they have the freedom to move be out in the fresh air whilst protect from predators using poultry nets. And are not under as much stress as if they were confin for their whole life.

hens inside of hen house
To be able to implement an adequate system. You must first create a suitable environment for your animals.

Conclusion of Productivity of meadows.

Meadows farming systems are a viable scheme for small-scale producers. And play a very important role in the area of food sovereignty. Giving farmers not only an income but also food security.

Recommendations.

– Before proposing a project, make sure that the necessary information can be obtained to carry it out correctly.

– When thinking about carrying out this type of farming. It is necessary to study more rustic breeds which are able to adapt to the climate where they will be living. When making the installations it is better to use both cost-effective as well as good quality materials e.g. Bamboo and hexagonal poultry wire.

-To carry out the project successfully it is very important to allow sufficient time to perform the scheduled activities

– More systematic and scientific studies are needed on this subject to obtain more objective and reliable information. Because the available data is very scarce and shallow.

  • Select options

    CHICKENMALLA®
    Mesh Netting for Chicken Coops and Poultry Houses (13x15mm mesh)

    MXN $223.11MXN $5,276.71 + I.V.A. (1 pieza)
  • Select options

    CHICKENMALLA®
    Plastic Mesh Netting for Chicken Breeding (25x25mm mesh)

    MXN $413.19MXN $6,266.10 + I.V.A. (1 pieza)
  • Select options

    CHICKENMALLA®
    Plastic Mesh Netting for Chickens and other Poultry (19x19mm mesh) (copia)

    MXN $2,447.70MXN $6,266.10 + I.V.A. (1 pieza)
  • Select options

    CHICKENMALLA®
    Plastic Chicken Netting for Poultry (16x19mm mesh)

    MXN $413.19MXN $12,532.23 + I.V.A. (1 pieza)

Veterinary medicine students, faculty of agricultural sciences, Antioquia University, Medellin, Colombia.

March 2012 Summary. In recent years, extensive animal farming systems have been implement, in this case egg productivity from grassland birds. Which has given rise to a lot of unease among farmers as to whether these systems are financially viable or not. For that reason, a profitability study was carry out. Using a batch of 303 grassland hens in the Antioquia University’s Hacienda Vegas de la Clara. Located in the Gomez Plata municipality. However, due to a lack of recorded information, the results could not be conclusive. As a result, this review article analyses references and articles where the productivity of these systems. Has been examine, and uses this information as a basis for developing the project that is then present.

Key words: grassland hens, organic eggs, happy hens.

chickenmalla net protecting hens
There are many ways to raise poultry, so it is essential to know. What it requires to provide a good environment to the chickens.

Introduction:

Eggs are one of the products most consumed by humans and their consumption has increased rapidly. In recent years due to their high protein content and high nutritional value. This increased demand has led farmers to look for and investigate alternatives. To step up production systems, quality and final presentation for sales to consumers. Simultaneously, an increased awareness has been arouse as regards. Animal well-being – a subject which intensive egg production has received a lot of criticism about. This has given rise to an increased demand for more naturally produced animal products with higher quality guarantees.

Egg production in recent years has been base on intensive farming systems. Where the birds are keep inside chicken wire cages throughout their productive life (North and Bell, 1993). Therefore, extensive systems where the birds are give more natural surroundings have been promote. Which result in better quality products for the consumer as the birds are fed better quality. Healthy food, as well as lowering production costs for the farmers.

Unfortunately, at the present time, such alternative production systems have not been scientifically evaluate. A few institutions have dedicate themselves to investigating this field, among them the CIPAV foundation in Colombia. Which has identified a large number of foraging species that can be use for animal food in alternative production systems. And fit the optimal nutritional requirements (Vargas and Delgadillo, 1998). When bordering off the foraging area, such systems use a type of poultry net. hexagonal poultry netting or plastic chicken wire, to section off the grazing area.

black hens in henhouse
It has not been scientifically proven that alternative systems. Guarantee to be ideal for the breeding of birds.

This lack of scientific research is due to the lack of data about the true productivity of these systems

And that is where the problem with implementing such systems lies – it’s difficult to convince farmers of their financial viability. However, by consulting some reference works we can find some studies. That have been done on the productivity of these alternative systems.

Grassland poultry farming is a more environmentally friendly option and a suitable alternative for improving. The standard of living for small-scale farmers in under-developed countries (FAO, 2003). Layer hens are a good income source. Improve the nutrition of rural families and therefore help to fulfil family and social obligations.

Some of the most important benefits obtained from Productivity of grassland poultry farming

Is the improvement to immune systems. Lower stress levels compared with confined systems and a decreased mortality and morbidity rates (Salatin, 1993). In the reference works consult, much is say about the positive impact these systems could have in under-develop countries. As they involve lower production costs and can be manage simply by small-scale farmers. In addition to a simple chicken house. All they would need would be an area large enough for the chickens to graze. And a type of poultry netting to cordon off the area. They can obtain good quality results. Which would be of great benefit to the food sovereignty of rural communities as well. As being a more animal-friendly option.

As farming is becoming more and more centred around animal well-being. These systems have the advantage over more traditional methods. Allowing the birds to roam freely whilst being protect by a good quality poultry net.

Methods and materials:

Location

The review was carry out by studying the production of chickens grazing at Hacienda Vegas de La Clara located in the municipality of Gómez Plata in the department of Antioquia in addition to 10 studies carried out in different parts of the world such as: Spain, Mexico, Colombia, Central America and the Caribbean, Central-Eastern Venezuela, Cuba and the Humid Tropics.

Materials

A total of 303 birds (BabCock Brown) were use in the Hacienda Las Vegas de La Clara. And 12 studies on grazing hens were use for the review. The materials required were a chicken house (mobile or fixed) and hexagonal poultry wire.

Methodology

The studies carry out on hens in different places were review to evaluate the production. Viability of systems, bird well-being, costs of installing poultry net, diseases, mortality, losses and egg quality.

Results.

By means of the study carried out on grazing birds in the Hacienda Vegas of La Clara Located in the municipality of Gómez Plata. Productivity was verified by means of data collection that allowed us to arrive at this affirmation where parameters. Such as mortality, production, rejects/sales and daily bird food consumption allowed us to ascertain the productivity.

-Mortality: Measuring from week 20 onwards, and appears in the graph as the percentage of accumulated mortality. Plotted at intervals of 5 weeks (birds that died in those 5 weeks. And birds that died in the previous weeks. In other words, at the end of week 85 the total mortality rate of all weeks. Which was 24.9% – 73 birds died during the course of the whole production.

chicken net installed on garden
You must choose the most suitable system for your economy to raise chickens.

– Production: The percentage of production is plott every 5 weeks, and shows the percentage that occurred in that specific week. The peak of production occurred between weeks 34 and 35 (94.4%).

– Discarded/sold: No birds were discard, so only those that were sell were measure and the percentage accumulate. The birds sold in those 5 weeks + the birds that were sell in the previous

weeks. The 85th week represents the total percentage of birds sold during the whole production process.

– Consumption: Plotted every 5 weeks. And shows the amount of food in grams that was consum per bird in 5 weeks. In week 20 shows the consumption of only 3 weeks (18,19 and 20).

The total consumption if grams per bird per week during the whole production was 50,664 gr.

In the variable profitability that we wanted to find in this study we found some difficulties. Such as lack of information regarding investment in materials such as poultry nets. Budget, profits and losses, which did not allow us to fully complete the research. Due to this shortcoming we plan to conduct a review of grazing hen farming systems. Covering several articles in which these studies were carry out. Another issue has been that the information available is not very specific and is focuse only on profitability studies.

Productivity of poultry
A good option is the use of nets for poultry. They avoid the attack of predators, protecting the hens.

The most published and most specific results were those regarding productivity and animal welfare. Based on all the articles that we reviewed. The results coincided with productivity for small-scale producers, since for them it is financially feasible. It was also show that when operated in conjunction with a mobile chicken house. And a roaming area sectioned off with chicken wire. Operations worked better as losses from robberies and predator, as well as diseases in humid climates, were all avoided.

The effect of the analysis was not statistically significant as regards food consumption and egg weight. But it was significant for the other response variables evaluate.

Discussion.

From the results found, grazing hen farming systems can be consider to be economically viable. But not enough to merit large investments as they do not produce. The kind of figures that intensive farming systems can handle. They are able to cope with 2000 at the most. A figure which is not very attractive to a large-scale producer. However, these systems favour small-scale producers. Who are more inclined to manage this type of extensive system. And it also has a positive impact on the food sovereignty issue (6).

It has also been find that the eggs of grazing hens are of better nutritional quality due to the more varied diet given to them. Not eating just concentrated foods or maize, but also forages and worms (2). The low cost of infrastructure and food must also be take into account. Although of course they will depend on who manages the production (1). Animal welfare in this case is also respect by keeping the birds in a more natural environment. Where they have the freedom to move be out in the fresh air whilst protect from predators using poultry nets. And are not under as much stress as if they were confin for their whole life.

hens inside of hen house
To be able to implement an adequate system. You must first create a suitable environment for your animals.

Conclusion of Productivity of meadows.

Meadows farming systems are a viable scheme for small-scale producers. And play a very important role in the area of food sovereignty. Giving farmers not only an income but also food security.

Recommendations.

– Before proposing a project, make sure that the necessary information can be obtained to carry it out correctly.

– When thinking about carrying out this type of farming. It is necessary to study more rustic breeds which are able to adapt to the climate where they will be living. When making the installations it is better to use both cost-effective as well as good quality materials e.g. Bamboo and hexagonal poultry wire.

-To carry out the project successfully it is very important to allow sufficient time to perform the scheduled activities

– More systematic and scientific studies are needed on this subject to obtain more objective and reliable information. Because the available data is very scarce and shallow.

  • Select options

    CHICKENMALLA®
    Mesh Netting for Chicken Coops and Poultry Houses (13x15mm mesh)

    MXN $223.11MXN $5,276.71 + I.V.A. (1 pieza)
  • Select options

    CHICKENMALLA®
    Plastic Mesh Netting for Chicken Breeding (25x25mm mesh)

    MXN $413.19MXN $6,266.10 + I.V.A. (1 pieza)
  • Select options

    CHICKENMALLA®
    Plastic Mesh Netting for Chickens and other Poultry (19x19mm mesh) (copia)

    MXN $2,447.70MXN $6,266.10 + I.V.A. (1 pieza)
  • Select options

    CHICKENMALLA®
    Plastic Chicken Netting for Poultry (16x19mm mesh)

    MXN $413.19MXN $12,532.23 + I.V.A. (1 pieza)

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