Tutoring trellis netting, ground cover cloth and anti-insects screenProposal of alternative techniques for better management of diseases and greater yield in the cultivation of vegetables. Tomato, paprika, gherkin and beans. Trellis netting, ground cover cloth and anti-insects screen are innovative tools for greater performance. In fact cultivation with traditional methods does not reach the maximum potential of exploitation of crops. In particular, much is spent on intense pest and disease control systems. With the negative consequences derived from the massive use of pesticides on health and the environment. In order to optimize the cultivation of vegetables, it is necessary to start from general basic conditions:
- Preparation of the soil: soil with a good composition of organic material and drainage
- Water availability and irrigation
- Experience in growing vegetables
- Labor and supplies
- Marketing channels
Tomatoes and paprika
Preparation of the soilBefore planting, ensure that the soil is free of pests and weeds, has a good consistency, good drainage and aeration. At this stage we recommend the use of non woven ground cover cloth for weed control. In addition it is necessary to verify that it has organic fertilizer and that there are no risks of links, trying to possibly protect it from mechanical erosion.
Seedlings care: germination shedIt is advisable to produce the seedlings in a controlled environment to ensure maximum performance. Proper moisture conditions are checked and maintained so that they are not attacked by pests. The ground cover cloth is useful for maintaining the temperature of the sun rays and preventing pests. Fertilizer treatments, irrigation and phytosanitary management should be adapted to the type of seedling, with extreme care in the first 30 days. The germination stand or seedbed is ideal to have atmospheric agents and pathogens under control.
Transplant phaseDepending on the plant variety, sun exposure, and type of irrigation, critical factors such as groove mapping and plant density will be determined. Special care must be taken not to injure the roots. To ensure good weed control the ground cover cloth can be maintained. The first prunings are made to improve the quality of the fruits. Likewise, the plants begin to climb on a system of trellis netting manufactured in polypropylene, to obtain a better aeration.
Plan of fertilizationIt is advisable to fine-tune an adequate fertilization plan, taking into account the needs of each stage of growth: transplant, flowering, fruiting. In addition the fertilization serves to add defenses to the plant to resist possible attacks of plagues. Organic fertilization is viable.
Phytosanitary controlThroughout its life the plant is exposed to the risk of contracting diseases, derived from fungi, bacteria or viruses. Preventive control is indispensable.
The most common tomato and paprika diseasesRig spots due to the fungus Alternaria: characterized by brown ring spots, it causes loss of flowers. Fruit decay due to bacteria: the origin of this problem is insect damage. Anti-aphid mesh is recommended and a good system of trellis netting to prevent the risk of this disease. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and tobacco etch virus (TEV): these viruses cause a decrease in growth, malformations and spots on leaves and fruits. Virus control is done through prevention. Especially a trellis netting system decreases the risk of mechanical transmission of viruses. At the same time it is convenient to apply an insect barrier.
SunburnIt occurs with spots that are then contaminated by the presence of bacteria and fungi. It is caused by a sudden increase in temperature. The shade net prevents heat shock and thus damages derived for production.
Blossom end rotThis symptomatology that leads to the necrosis of the fruit is due to the lack of calcium in the soil and the lack of water. The maintenance of thermal conditions and a better use of irrigation are favored by the application of shading net. In addition to ensuring adequate amount of Cal in the field.
Phytothora sp.It is manifested with spots on leaves, branches and fruits. A trellis netting helps to avoid the contamination of fungi because when raising the plant of the ground, there are less contacts with the humidity. In addition, the distribution of the plant material on the tutoring netting helps to improve the phytosanitary conditions.
Pest controlSome insects that can bring diseases are the lepidoptera, and the crickets that in the phase of transplants can chop the plants mainly at night. Aphids attack leaves, roots, stem and flowers. The whitefly sucks the sap causing malformations to the leaves and also they are vectors of virus. The mites cause discoloration in the leaves. Leaf-cucarades attack both leaves and flowers. The larva of fly Prodiplosis and the Pin of fruit attack the crop causing serious losses. Some pests become resistant to agrochemical applications. For this reason it is advisable to apply alternative systems of pest control, such as trellis netting with anti-insects mesh. The insect barrier is the best preventive management of the damages caused by aphids, flies, larvae.
HarvestThe harvest stage in paprika and tomato is about 70 days after transplanting. For a longer duration in the storage phase it is recommended not to cut the peduncle. The application of a good system of entutorado with meshes of polypropylene is a guarantee to conserve intact the pedúnculo. On the contrary, raffia ties can cause damage to the peduncle and consequently reduce the storage time of the product.
PickleFrom the transplant to the harvest only 30 days pass. No transplant is needed when the weather conditions are stable. The recommendations are the same as the tomatoes and paprika. As for weed control it is advisable to apply anti-weed or ground cover cloth. A trellis netting system is also effective. Thanks to the support of the spalier the fruits are cleaner when harvested with the consequent saving in labor. In the fertilization plan you have to include a greater amount of potassium. Organic fertilizer is also an option for this variety.
Common Diseases in GherkinsPhytophthora downy mildew caused by a fungus that develops due to excess moisture. It is possible to limit the incidence of fungi thanks to the trellis netting to avoid the contact with the ground and to guarantee the necessary ventilation in the foliar material. In addition, there is a saving in the use of fungicides.
Insects and pests that attack the gherkinThe most common are: whitefly, mites, aphids, thrips, fruit borer that attacks fruits.
BeansIt is a type of crop that is used in rotation with vegetables. It is sown directly on the moist soil. Also in the case of beans is advised the trellis netting system. The fertilization plan can be the same as tomato and pepper.
Phytosanitary controlThe insects that cause diseases in the cultivation of beans are: mites, heliothis, hackers, green lorito, whitefly. Fungi frequently attack beans. Thanks to the trellis netting system and the anti-aphids mesh you can control the humidity conditions and protect the harvest from the insects.
Hortomallas SA de CV
HORTOMALLAS manufactures and markets crop support nettings (trellising and tutoring as alternatives to the raffia twine labor intensive traditional system) that increase crop quality. Our Mission is to: INCREASE VEGETABLE CROP YIELD AND PROFITABILITY TO ALL THOSE VEGETABLES THAT NEED TUTORING AND SUPPORT USING NETTING INSTEAD OF RAFFIA. Since 1994 we help professional growers and farmers improve their cucumber, tomatoes, melon, zucchini, bean, chile, peppers crops where trellises and supports are needed. HORTOMALLAS is the ideal system for cucurbitacea and solonacea to improve their phytosanitary conditions, while increasing the solar exposure and the brix degrees. Besides the obvious labor costs savings, the use of HORTOMALLAS increases the life span of the plant, allowing longer periods of harvests and of a greater quality. Call us, our crop specialists will help you with specialized attention in the Americas and the Iberian Peninsula!