Tomato fungal diseases: preventing pathogenic fungi using tutoring net
HORTOMALLAS Support netting to combat tomato fungal diseases.
Efficiency of anti-micoidal treatments in tomatoes.
The tomato crop is of great economic value to many countries, and for this reason it is extremely important to prevent any diseases from affecting it, particularly pathogenic tomato fungal diseases.
Treatments exists for all these fungal diseases, but are primarily preventative. It has been observed that if the treatments are applied once a disease has already shown itself, crop growth usually does not recover due to the great damages, affecting the production and occasionally the loss of the whole crop.
When it comes to the tomato fungal diseases, you will usually find similar symptom when the disease is caused by a pathogenic fungi.
- The majority of pathogenic fungi attack the tomato plant foliage, provoking a defoliation and leaving the fruit exposed.
- Some pathogenic fungi also attack other parts of the plants such as the stem, flower, petiole, roots, and fruit.
- The majority of the lesions caused by these fungi are: pale or dark spots of discolorations; a few have light gray to black centers; still others have color patterns.
- If the fungus infects a fruit, it will start to present a cloven stain.
- If the fungus reaches the root system of the crop, it will kill the crop.
- Some fungi only infect plants when they are in specific states of development, but there are some that have the ability to propagate themselves during the entire life cycle of the plant.
(Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium spp., Fusarium spp., Sclerotium spp., and Rytophthora app.
This disease produces brownish lesions that reach deep into the plant tissue which have a necrotic moist appearance. The progress of this disease makes the effected area weak and makes seedling fold in half.
Powdery mildew attacks the leaves and shows up as white marks near the top of the leaf. As the disease starts to advance, the marks grow, reducing the total photosynthetic area available to the plant, causing the fruit to be exposed to the suns rays. This disease can present itself in either humid or dry conditions, and it spreads either by air or by water. It can be treated chemically with sulfur.
The symptoms are similar to powdery mildew, with the difference that this disease shows up as yellowish marks and can affect various parts of the plant.
This disease attacks the petioles of the plant provoking them to fall off, while other leaves will acquire a yellowish coloration, eventually drying up the plant.
This disease attacks the leaves and the fruit. Marks start to appear on the leaves with concentric rings of a brownish color. If the marks manage to extend themselves, the leaves will start to fall off. The marks on the stem and petiole are much darker. If the fruit manages to get infected with this disease, it will show up as concave, necrotic marks.
When the plant contracts this disease, it will present itself as marks on the upper leaf with a dry and brownish center, the underside will show a mark surrounded by a clear line, and the leaves will take a darker brown coloration. The stem will show greenish marks. The fruit will show brown stains, and acquire a clear coloration around the edge. If the disease is not dealt with, the fruit will end up completely covered in mycelium.
Blight attacks the roots of your crops, causing them to start to rot, which will end up killing the plant fairly quickly. A high humidity concentration will favor the spread of this disease.
Wet stem rot – White mold
The infection rate is highest in autumn and winter. This disease mainly attacks the stems that are close to the ground, and produces lesions in the leaf axils. This disease causes rot in the tissue of the plant, resulting in deep wounds which can have white cottony mycelium when in high humidity concentrations. For this disease to get a foothold in your tomato crop, the ascospores need to land on necrotic tissue.
This tomato disease manifests itself unilaterally on the leaf of the tomato plant taking on a yellowish coloration and presenting a light amount of withering. A strong case of this disease reduces the growth of the fruit.
Stemphylium spp. The lesions caused by this disease are brownish with a gray center and a small yellow periphery around the edge of the leaf.
This disease causes cloven spots on the fruit with black dots around the center, while the roots form brown discolorations.
This fungus attacks the stem, petiole, and floral peduncle, but the principle attack vector are the leaves, which form brown spots with a gray center and a border that turns yellow. If the disease reaches its final stages it can cause defoliation, leaving the fruit exposed to the sun.
The implementation of tomato net to prevent fungal diseases
The fungicides that can be used to fight these diseases are as follows: Azoxystrobin, Benalaxil, Benomyl, Boscalid, Bromomethane, Captan, Carbendazim, Chlorothalonil, Cyprodinil, Difenoconazole, Ferbam, Fludioxonil, Folpet, Fosetyl-aluminum, Copper hydroxide, Kasugamycine, Mancozeb, Metalaxyl, Dicopper chloride trihydroxide, Cuprous oxide, Procymidone, Propamocarb, Propineb, Pyraclostrobin, Copper sulfate pentahydrate, Tetraamminecopper sulfate, Tetraconazole, Thiram, Triadimefon, Zineb, Ziram.
The application of these preventative treatments alongside the employment of good agricultural practices will minimize the possible contagions and the majority of the tomato fungal diseases.
One such excellent agricultural practice is to use HORTOMALLAS support netting, since the application of a trellis net will allow your tomato crop a greater intake of solar light on its leaves and much better aeration, and this reduces tomato fungal diseases. These two advantages reduce the long term humidity concentration, which is one of the main factors that fungi need to start infecting your crops, minimizing the incidence of fungus.
These pathogenic fungi use the water, air, tools, and clothing of your laborers as a dispersion method. Because HORTOMALLAS crop net reduces the amount of manual labor needed to care for your crops, this also reduces the spread of disease caused by your workers.
Manual labor is a vector of transmission for pathogens, so a reduction in the amount of manual labor by using HORTOMALLAS crop netting will also reduce diseases in your crops.
This image shows a crop that is staked with raffia, which requires significantly more labor in comparison.