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The use of trellis netting makes eggplants inside greenhouses production much easier and more profitable.

The use of trellis netting makes eggplants inside greenhouses production much easier and more profitable.

Tutoring eggplants inside the greenhouses using vegetable plant support netting.

In this article we will explore the various advantages of using trellis netting for growing eggplants inside greenhouses or other types of protected growing areas. With proper pruning, the greenhouse-grown eggplant can grow back and be harvested a second year, but the quality of the second crop will be lower.

Using trellis net as espalier, eggplant inside a greenhouse

Soil and climate requirements:

Using trellis net in eggplants
Utilizzo della rete a traliccio in coltivazione di melanzane

Optimal Temperatures Inside Greenhouses Temperatures (Fahrenheit):

Cultivation phase:

Germination: 68-77 Fº

Vegetative growth: 68-80.6Fº

Vegetative growth: 68-80.6 Fº

Flowering and fruiting 68-86 Fº This crop is sensitive to cold, subjected to temperatures below 50°. A 41 Fº i damage appears after 6 – 8 days.

Optimal relative humidity: 50-65%; whether it is too low or too high affects flowering, flowers fall off, fruit may be shapeless, and growth decreases. Brightness:

eggplants inside greenhouses require 10 to 12 hours of sunlight exposure.

Soils: eggplant is undemanding in this respect because it has deep root systems and prefers soils with PH between 6 and 7. On acid soils it shows problems in growth and production.

It tolerates some salinity, but less than tomatoes especially during the early stages of growth.

Peculiarities of crops:

Spacing: 2 m between lines and 0.5 m between plants, for plants remaining 4 stems per pruning, 1.75 m X 0.5 m (3 or 4 stems)

1.5 m x 0.75 m (4 drums); 1.5 mx 0.5 m (3 drums) or 1 mx 0.5 m (2 drums).

Tamping: is done 15-20 days after transplanting, when organic material is to be provided in order to protect the plant base.

Eggplants trellising net
An eggplant crop supported by trellising net as a plat support and training system.

Training pruning: the number of stems is demarcated: 2,3 or 4. the hickeys are removed and the leaves growing under “the cross” and the number of stems that will be left is chosen, based on the spacing of the plants. For four-arm pruning, you will need one stem for each main arm. An eggplant crop supported by a trellis net as a support and tutoring system.

It is convenient to apply anti-botrite products on the cuts made. Eggplant with brace: each of the stems left from the training pruning is supported using a vertical trellis, bracing in the greenhouse using a trellis net, so when the plant grows it will rest on the trellis.

Using the HORTOMALLAS® trellis net to tutor eggplants.

Lattice netting on eggplant inside greenhouses.

Better performance is achieved if eggplants are supported by trellis nets.
eggplants in greenhouses
Eggplants perform best when supported by trellis netting.

Aphyllous: senescent and diseased leaves. Frequent in plants that have not undergone training pruning. This should be done for dry leaves with low ambient humidity.

Inflorescence reduction and fruit thinning: only one of the 3 or 4 flowers will give rise to fruit, so it is convenient to eliminate the rest. As for fruits, eliminate those that are damaged, shapeless or too small.

Irrigation:

Average consumption (l / m2 per day) for greenhouse eggplant cultivation.

Months

August 3.05

September 4.95

October 5.98

November 3.87

December 2.77

January 2.3

February 2.6

March 5.15

April 6.78

May 6.25

SOURCE: Agricultural technical documents. Experimental station “las palmerillas” Caja rural de Almerìa, Spain.

tutoring with trellis net
The large mesh squares of the trellis netting allow better handling of the fruit at harvest time

The large squares of the lattice mesh allow for better handling of the fruit at harvest time

In greenhouses, vegetative growth should be avoided too fast, so after planting the soil should not be too moist, as the exuberant plant growth could cause flowering problems and only some flowers might be fertilized.

eggplant crop with trellis net
Pruning and harvesting are easy when the trellis net is 25×25 cm square.

This precaution should be maintained until two or three fruits per plant have been produced. When the first fruits begin to develop, it is necessary to increase the volume of irrigation, watering every two or three days, or even daily, depending on environmental conditions.

Main varieties of eggplant marketed

Semi-long eggplant: fruit more or less elongated and narrow than previously described, of low weight. This type is valued by both domestic and foreign markets. New varieties for greenhouses and suitable for outdoor cultivation are appearing.

. Eggplanting inside greenhouses in Almeria, Spain, is done in mid-August and harvesting from late September to December.

Plant from August 15 to September 15, starting harvest in October and ending in June.

Sowing in late December, starts harvesting in March and ends in June

Eggplant harvest:

eggplants should be harvested before the seeds begin to swell, as this makes the fruit bitter.The best time to harvest eggplants inside greenhouses is when the fruit appears bright. Usually the time between two consecutive cuts is 5 to 10 days, depending on environmental conditions.

Basic rules for eggplant harvesting and plant support
eggplant support
Plants grow more vigorously when a trellis net is used for tutoring.

Harvest the fruits in the morning, preferably not wet, also considering safety regulations regarding the active chemicals used.

Always use scissors so as not to tear the plant stems, leaving at least an inch on the stalk. Eggplants growing inside greenhouses using trellis netting take advantage of plant functions, multiplying their benefits. If there are not excellent controls and specific phytosanitary practices are not followed, problems will grow exponentially. Using plant plant support nets on both sides of the furrows of the is essential as it reduces mechanical transmission of diseases and plant stress.

Ensure proper handling of fruits to prevent damage that reduces the value of the harvest.

Diseases of eggplant inside greenhouses:

Ragno rosso: Tetranychus urticae Koch; Turkestani Ugarov and Nikolsky and T Ludeni Tacher. ( Acarina Tetranychidae)

Causes discoloration, or yellow spots on lower leaves. Produces desiccation or even defoliation. The most severe attacks are produced during the early phenological stages. High temperatures and low relative humidity stimulate the appearance of this insect.

Red spyder
The red spider causes yellow spots on the leaves of eggplant plants.
White spyder : Polyphagotarsonemus latus banks ( Acarina: Tarsonemidae)

Curled nerves on apical leaves and sprouts, and curving on more developed leaves. As attacks become more serious on eggplants, dwarfism appears and an intense green coloring of the plants.

White spyder
White spiders cause an intense green coloration in the leaves of plants.

White: Trialeurodes vaporariorum West. Y Bemisia tabaci Genn (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

Adults lie on the underside of the leaves. Direct damage (yellow color and general weakening) is caused by the larvae and adults absorbing sap from the leaves. Indirect damage is due to heavy proliferation on the molasses produced during feeding, causing staining and interfering with normal development, and subsequent depreciation of the fruit. This insect also causes mechanical spread of viruses and other diseases from an infected plant to a healthy one.

Aphids: Aphis gossypii Sulzer. And Mysus persicae Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) They concentrate by forming colonies and spread during spring and fall.

White fly
The whitefly they cause absorbs the sap from the leaves and the plant begins to weaken turning yellow.

Thrips: Frankiliniella occidentallis Pergande. (Thysanoptera: Triphidae). Adults colonize crops by penetrating plant tissues in leaves, fruits and mainly flowers. They leave a silvery appearance on affected organs that are subsequently necrosed. Indirect damage is the most important due to the transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) affecting cayenne pepper, tomato, eggplant and bean.

Minatori fogliari: Liriomyza trifoll burgues, Liriomyza bryoniae, Liriomyza strigata, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae)

Adult females lay eggs within the tissue of young leaves, where larvae begin to develop and feed on the parenchyma, causing typical galleries.

Thrips
One of the symptoms that the eggplant presents when infected is to leave a silvery or green appearance on the affected parts.

Caterpillars: Spodoptera exigua Hubner. S. litoralis Boisduval. Heliothis armigera Hubner. H peltigera Dennis and Schiff. Chrysodeisis chalcites Esper. Autographa gamma L ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

Nematodes: Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae)

They produce root nodules, penetrating them from the soil. This damage produces pot clogging by preventing proper absorption through the roots. This reduces plant growth and causes symptoms such as wilting during heat hours, chlorosis and dwarfism to appear.

grigio: Botryotinia fuckeliana (De Bary) Wethrel. (Ascomycetes: Heliotales. Anamorph: Botrytis cinerea Pers).

Produces brown tears in fruit and flowers, soft rot (more or less watery depending on the tissue) on which a gray mycelium fungus is found.

White rot: Sclerotinia sclerotioum (Lib) Bary. (Ascomycetes: Heliotales. Not known.) Produces watery (no foul odor) white rot at first, which later dries out depending on the succulence of the tissues. Covering later with abundant white cotton-like micellar substance. Multiple white sclerotia that later turn black are also observed.

eggplants inside greenhouses
Rotten eggplant with brown damage.

Soft rot: Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carovotora (Jones) Bergey et al. Polyphagous bacterium that causes watery, soft markings that tend to have a nauseating odor. This is also true of the fruits. The plants generally die.

Potato virus Y (PVY): affects proper plant development and alters pericarp coloration on berries.

Lucerne mosaic virus (AMV): causes plants to turn yellow and fruits to appear underdeveloped but without decreasing production.

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV): reduces the size of attacked plants, which fold in on themselves. It also presents progressive necrosis and spotting of apical leaves. The fruits of these plants are shapeless.

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Tutoring eggplants inside the greenhouses using vegetable plant support netting.

In this article we will explore the various advantages of using trellis netting for growing eggplants inside greenhouses or other types of protected growing areas. With proper pruning, the greenhouse-grown eggplant can grow back and be harvested a second year, but the quality of the second crop will be lower.

Using trellis net as espalier, eggplant inside a greenhouse

Soil and climate requirements:

Using trellis net in eggplants
Utilizzo della rete a traliccio in coltivazione di melanzane

Optimal Temperatures Inside Greenhouses Temperatures (Fahrenheit):

Cultivation phase:

Germination: 68-77 Fº

Vegetative growth: 68-80.6Fº

Vegetative growth: 68-80.6 Fº

Flowering and fruiting 68-86 Fº This crop is sensitive to cold, subjected to temperatures below 50°. A 41 Fº i damage appears after 6 – 8 days.

Optimal relative humidity: 50-65%; whether it is too low or too high affects flowering, flowers fall off, fruit may be shapeless, and growth decreases. Brightness:

eggplants inside greenhouses require 10 to 12 hours of sunlight exposure.

Soils: eggplant is undemanding in this respect because it has deep root systems and prefers soils with PH between 6 and 7. On acid soils it shows problems in growth and production.

It tolerates some salinity, but less than tomatoes especially during the early stages of growth.

Peculiarities of crops:

Spacing: 2 m between lines and 0.5 m between plants, for plants remaining 4 stems per pruning, 1.75 m X 0.5 m (3 or 4 stems)

1.5 m x 0.75 m (4 drums); 1.5 mx 0.5 m (3 drums) or 1 mx 0.5 m (2 drums).

Tamping: is done 15-20 days after transplanting, when organic material is to be provided in order to protect the plant base.

Eggplants trellising net
An eggplant crop supported by trellising net as a plat support and training system.

Training pruning: the number of stems is demarcated: 2,3 or 4. the hickeys are removed and the leaves growing under “the cross” and the number of stems that will be left is chosen, based on the spacing of the plants. For four-arm pruning, you will need one stem for each main arm. An eggplant crop supported by a trellis net as a support and tutoring system.

It is convenient to apply anti-botrite products on the cuts made. Eggplant with brace: each of the stems left from the training pruning is supported using a vertical trellis, bracing in the greenhouse using a trellis net, so when the plant grows it will rest on the trellis.

Using the HORTOMALLAS® trellis net to tutor eggplants.

Lattice netting on eggplant inside greenhouses.

Better performance is achieved if eggplants are supported by trellis nets.
eggplants in greenhouses
Eggplants perform best when supported by trellis netting.

Aphyllous: senescent and diseased leaves. Frequent in plants that have not undergone training pruning. This should be done for dry leaves with low ambient humidity.

Inflorescence reduction and fruit thinning: only one of the 3 or 4 flowers will give rise to fruit, so it is convenient to eliminate the rest. As for fruits, eliminate those that are damaged, shapeless or too small.

Irrigation:

Average consumption (l / m2 per day) for greenhouse eggplant cultivation.

Months

August 3.05

September 4.95

October 5.98

November 3.87

December 2.77

January 2.3

February 2.6

March 5.15

April 6.78

May 6.25

SOURCE: Agricultural technical documents. Experimental station “las palmerillas” Caja rural de Almerìa, Spain.

tutoring with trellis net
The large mesh squares of the trellis netting allow better handling of the fruit at harvest time

The large squares of the lattice mesh allow for better handling of the fruit at harvest time

In greenhouses, vegetative growth should be avoided too fast, so after planting the soil should not be too moist, as the exuberant plant growth could cause flowering problems and only some flowers might be fertilized.

eggplant crop with trellis net
Pruning and harvesting are easy when the trellis net is 25×25 cm square.

This precaution should be maintained until two or three fruits per plant have been produced. When the first fruits begin to develop, it is necessary to increase the volume of irrigation, watering every two or three days, or even daily, depending on environmental conditions.

Main varieties of eggplant marketed

Semi-long eggplant: fruit more or less elongated and narrow than previously described, of low weight. This type is valued by both domestic and foreign markets. New varieties for greenhouses and suitable for outdoor cultivation are appearing.

. Eggplanting inside greenhouses in Almeria, Spain, is done in mid-August and harvesting from late September to December.

Plant from August 15 to September 15, starting harvest in October and ending in June.

Sowing in late December, starts harvesting in March and ends in June

Eggplant harvest:

eggplants should be harvested before the seeds begin to swell, as this makes the fruit bitter.The best time to harvest eggplants inside greenhouses is when the fruit appears bright. Usually the time between two consecutive cuts is 5 to 10 days, depending on environmental conditions.

Basic rules for eggplant harvesting and plant support
eggplant support
Plants grow more vigorously when a trellis net is used for tutoring.

Harvest the fruits in the morning, preferably not wet, also considering safety regulations regarding the active chemicals used.

Always use scissors so as not to tear the plant stems, leaving at least an inch on the stalk. Eggplants growing inside greenhouses using trellis netting take advantage of plant functions, multiplying their benefits. If there are not excellent controls and specific phytosanitary practices are not followed, problems will grow exponentially. Using plant plant support nets on both sides of the furrows of the is essential as it reduces mechanical transmission of diseases and plant stress.

Ensure proper handling of fruits to prevent damage that reduces the value of the harvest.

Diseases of eggplant inside greenhouses:

Ragno rosso: Tetranychus urticae Koch; Turkestani Ugarov and Nikolsky and T Ludeni Tacher. ( Acarina Tetranychidae)

Causes discoloration, or yellow spots on lower leaves. Produces desiccation or even defoliation. The most severe attacks are produced during the early phenological stages. High temperatures and low relative humidity stimulate the appearance of this insect.

Red spyder
The red spider causes yellow spots on the leaves of eggplant plants.
White spyder : Polyphagotarsonemus latus banks ( Acarina: Tarsonemidae)

Curled nerves on apical leaves and sprouts, and curving on more developed leaves. As attacks become more serious on eggplants, dwarfism appears and an intense green coloring of the plants.

White spyder
White spiders cause an intense green coloration in the leaves of plants.

White: Trialeurodes vaporariorum West. Y Bemisia tabaci Genn (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

Adults lie on the underside of the leaves. Direct damage (yellow color and general weakening) is caused by the larvae and adults absorbing sap from the leaves. Indirect damage is due to heavy proliferation on the molasses produced during feeding, causing staining and interfering with normal development, and subsequent depreciation of the fruit. This insect also causes mechanical spread of viruses and other diseases from an infected plant to a healthy one.

Aphids: Aphis gossypii Sulzer. And Mysus persicae Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) They concentrate by forming colonies and spread during spring and fall.

White fly
The whitefly they cause absorbs the sap from the leaves and the plant begins to weaken turning yellow.

Thrips: Frankiliniella occidentallis Pergande. (Thysanoptera: Triphidae). Adults colonize crops by penetrating plant tissues in leaves, fruits and mainly flowers. They leave a silvery appearance on affected organs that are subsequently necrosed. Indirect damage is the most important due to the transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) affecting cayenne pepper, tomato, eggplant and bean.

Minatori fogliari: Liriomyza trifoll burgues, Liriomyza bryoniae, Liriomyza strigata, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae)

Adult females lay eggs within the tissue of young leaves, where larvae begin to develop and feed on the parenchyma, causing typical galleries.

Thrips
One of the symptoms that the eggplant presents when infected is to leave a silvery or green appearance on the affected parts.

Caterpillars: Spodoptera exigua Hubner. S. litoralis Boisduval. Heliothis armigera Hubner. H peltigera Dennis and Schiff. Chrysodeisis chalcites Esper. Autographa gamma L ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

Nematodes: Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae)

They produce root nodules, penetrating them from the soil. This damage produces pot clogging by preventing proper absorption through the roots. This reduces plant growth and causes symptoms such as wilting during heat hours, chlorosis and dwarfism to appear.

grigio: Botryotinia fuckeliana (De Bary) Wethrel. (Ascomycetes: Heliotales. Anamorph: Botrytis cinerea Pers).

Produces brown tears in fruit and flowers, soft rot (more or less watery depending on the tissue) on which a gray mycelium fungus is found.

White rot: Sclerotinia sclerotioum (Lib) Bary. (Ascomycetes: Heliotales. Not known.) Produces watery (no foul odor) white rot at first, which later dries out depending on the succulence of the tissues. Covering later with abundant white cotton-like micellar substance. Multiple white sclerotia that later turn black are also observed.

eggplants inside greenhouses
Rotten eggplant with brown damage.

Soft rot: Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carovotora (Jones) Bergey et al. Polyphagous bacterium that causes watery, soft markings that tend to have a nauseating odor. This is also true of the fruits. The plants generally die.

Potato virus Y (PVY): affects proper plant development and alters pericarp coloration on berries.

Lucerne mosaic virus (AMV): causes plants to turn yellow and fruits to appear underdeveloped but without decreasing production.

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV): reduces the size of attacked plants, which fold in on themselves. It also presents progressive necrosis and spotting of apical leaves. The fruits of these plants are shapeless.

Leave a comment


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