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Bacterial diseases of the tomato plant

Bacterial diseases of the tomato plant

Bacterial diseases that infect the tomato and their symptoms

As any product becomes increasingly important in the economic sector, any factor that will increase the efficiency of producing that product will usuall be explore, including the impacts of bacterial illnesses in tomatoes.

This is no different for the tomato crop, as great efforts have be undertake to not only to identify any bacterial illnesses that might negatively impact the grow of the plant and its fruit, but also to find the correct treatments and agricultural practices that will reduce the incidence and impact that these diseases have.

One such agricultural practice that has repeatedly be prove to be essential is the use of a tutoring system. This tutoring system will reduce the spread of disease in your tomato crop as well as aid their growth.

When a proper tutoring system is use, it allows the agriculturist to provide improve ambient conditions to his crops. These improved conditions are beneficial to the plant.

To ensure that all these actions result in a good harvest, you should implement other good agricultural practices.

Bacterial Diseases
If the plant is infected with a virus, it affects both the plant and the tomatoes presenting different symptoms.

Bacterial diseases that attack the tomato crop

Bacterial Canker

The bacterial species that provoke Bacterial Canker is name Clavibacter michiganensis. This is considere one of the most destructive bacterial-diseases that can happen to greenhouse crops. This disease will cause your plants to wither, starting asymmetrically in the leaves.

If the plant has any immature fruit, they will begin to fall off, meanwhile the plant will start to look burnt. The stem of the plant will start to form stretch marks where any leaves attach.

The rest of the stem will then start to observe linear discolorations. The formation of cancerous looking spots and blisters on the stem and leaves is not an uncommon occurrence. Mature fruit will often form discolorations that have a dark center surrounded by a white opaque halo.

Bacterial Canker
The canker bacteria is the bacteria that causes the most damage in the crop because it will cause the plant to start to wilt, starting with the leaves.

Bacterial spot

There are two species of bacteria responsible for Bacterial Spot: Xanthomonas axonopodis and X. vesicatoria. These bacterial illnesses is considere to be fairly damage to the tomato crop because it provokes wounds on the surface.

These wounds will have different characteristics depending on which state of development the fruit is in. When the infected fruit is still immature, the spots will have a woody appearance surrounded by halos.

The mature fruit on the other hand will still have the spots that look to be make of wood, but will not have the halos surrounding them. The bacteria that cause this disease are transmit by both wind and rain splash.

Bacterial Speck

The cause of Bacterial Speck is the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. This bacteria attacks the leaves of the plant and causes them to turn an off-green to brow color that is surround by a yellow line. Edges and at the apex of leaves are the most damaged by this disease.

If the disease spreads sufficiently, the leaf will turn a yellowish color before ultimately falling off, leaving the plants fruit exposed to the sun. The fruit will also acquire circular brown spots that are delimite by a dark green halo.

These spots will eventually turn crusty, but unlike several of the other diseases that affect the tomato fruit, does not actually affect the epidermis of the fruit. This bacteria is spread through the air, rain splash, and the clothing, tools, and hands of anyone that happens to be working the fields.

Bacterial Speck
The bacterial speck causes the leaf to turn yellow and begin to fall and leave the plant exposed to the sun.

Spinal necrosis or hollow stem

Hollow Stem disease is cause by Pseudomonas corrugata, P. mediterranea, and P. viridiflava. The wounds that this infection causes are primarily observable in the stem, which will start showing dark spots that eventually start to crack.

If the stem is cut open, you will be able to observe that the inside has turn a significantly more pale color than normal, and you will see the formation of several hollow holes. The leaves of the tomato plant will turn yellow and start to wilt, before eventually falling off.

The tomato plant reacts to this disease by growing new adventitious roots. These bacteria are disperse both by irrigation water and whoever happens to be working on the tomato crop that particular day.

Spinal necrosis
Hollow stem disease causes the stem to open and the leaves turn yellow.

Bacterial Wilt

The bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum is responsible for the disease call Bacterial Wilt and is one of the world’s most important pathogenic bacteria in plants.

due to the vast losses that it provokes in a wide range of crops. This disease is characterize by a sudden wilting of the tomato plant where before you had a perfectly healthy plant.

The bacteria that cause this disease will infect the xylem of the plant, but this will not show up until there is a significant buildup of bacteria in the plant. Once there is a significant population in the plant’s vascular tissue, you will be able to observe stains on the exterior that look like dark wounds, and if you open up part of the stem, the sap will be more viscous.

This disease is spread through irrigation water or contact with laborers.

Bacterial Wilt
Bacterial wilt can be transmitted through water or through contact with the plant if the plant is damaged.

Soft Stem Rot

Soft Stem Rot is cause by Pectobacterium carotovorum. The observable symptoms of this bacterial illnesses will show up in the stem as a dark stain that will be color a dark green with a somewhat viscous consistency.

If the stain happens to develop near the root of the flower, the entire flower will be overtake by the disease. This infection can cause a sudden wilting or even death of the plant. If there are any wounds cause by either workers or insects, the fruit can be infect leaving them looking cloven with a dark coloration and a watery texture. The fruit will eventually deform into a viscous mass that will eventually fall to the ground.

Soft Stem Rot
The symptoms of the soft stem rot will show on the stem as a dark green viscous spot this disease can kill the plant if it spreads.

Advantages brought by an adequate tutoring system

The infection of these bacterial-diseases in your tomato crops will usuall be cause by the responsible bacteria.

These wounds can either be cause by workers that are doing their normal duties while tending the crops, or through the actions of some insects that feed on your plants. When you use a tutoring system you provide your crops with an adequate growing area to distribute itself.

Add an adequate drainage system to your field, the combination will ensure that your crops have the perfect humidity. By avoiding the exposure of your crops to long periods of excessive humidity, you avoid several diseases.

By using HORTOMALLAS® crop support netting you reduce the probabilities that your crops will become infected by bacterial illnesses.

HORTOMALLAS® crop support netting
The HORTOMALLAS® trellis net is a good option because it reduces the possibility that the plant will contract any of these viruses.

Agrochemical treatment against tomato bacteria

A list of the various chemicals that can be use to treat these diseases of the tomato crop are: Acibenzolar-S-methyl, Bacillus subtilis soil inoculation, Streptomycin, Copper(II) hydroxide, Kasugamycin, Mancozeb+copper, Dicopper chloride trihydroxide, Dicopper chloride trihydroxide 39% + Mancozeb 30%, Copper(I) Oxide, and Dicopper chloride trihydroxide + Kasugamycin.

In order to ensure that the process of disinfection, its recommend to apply a combination of these products.

Also, agrochemicals for the control of diseases are preventative.

References

FAO. (2013). El cultivo de tomate con buenas prácticas agrícolas en la agricultura urbana y periurbana. Recuperado el 28 de septiembre de 2015 de http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3359s.pdf

Productores de hortalizas. (2006). Plagas y enfermedades del tomate. Guía de identificación y manejo. México. Recuperado el 28 de septiembre de 2015 de http://vegetablemdonline.ppath.cornell.edu/NewsArticles/Tomato_Spanish.pdf

Sosa, Mirta. (2013). Guía para el reconocimiento de enfermedades en el cultivo de tomate. Formosa, Argentina. Recuperado el 28 septiembre de 2015 de http://inta.gob.ar/documentos/guia-para-el-reconocimiento-de-enfermedades-en-el-cultivo-de-tomate/at_multi_download/file/INTA_Guia_de_Reconocimiento_de_Enfermedades_en_el_Cultivo_de_Tomate.pdf

Argerich, C.; Troilo, L.; Rodriguez Fazzone, M.; et al. ( Manual de buenas prácticas agrícolas en la cadena de tomate

http://www.monografias.com/trabajos101/enfermedades-bacterianas-del-tomate/enfermedades-bacterianas-del-tomate.shtml
  • hortomallas-cuadro-25x25
    Select options

    HORTOMALLAS®
    Trellis Net for Vegetable Tutoring (25x25cm mesh)

    MXN $430.68MXN $10,678.26 + I.V.A. (1 pieza)
  • Select options

    HORTOMALLAS®
    Vegetable Support Netting (15x17cm mesh)

    MXN $481.00MXN $9,481.15 + I.V.A. (1 pieza)
  • Select options

    HORTOMALLAS®
    Trellis Netting for a Tutoring System (12.5×12.5cm mesh)

    MXN $606.32MXN $6,916.10 + I.V.A. (1 pieza)

Bacterial diseases that infect the tomato and their symptoms

As any product becomes increasingly important in the economic sector, any factor that will increase the efficiency of producing that product will usuall be explore, including the impacts of bacterial illnesses in tomatoes.

This is no different for the tomato crop, as great efforts have be undertake to not only to identify any bacterial illnesses that might negatively impact the grow of the plant and its fruit, but also to find the correct treatments and agricultural practices that will reduce the incidence and impact that these diseases have.

One such agricultural practice that has repeatedly be prove to be essential is the use of a tutoring system. This tutoring system will reduce the spread of disease in your tomato crop as well as aid their growth.

When a proper tutoring system is use, it allows the agriculturist to provide improve ambient conditions to his crops. These improved conditions are beneficial to the plant.

To ensure that all these actions result in a good harvest, you should implement other good agricultural practices.

Bacterial Diseases
If the plant is infected with a virus, it affects both the plant and the tomatoes presenting different symptoms.

Bacterial diseases that attack the tomato crop

Bacterial Canker

The bacterial species that provoke Bacterial Canker is name Clavibacter michiganensis. This is considere one of the most destructive bacterial-diseases that can happen to greenhouse crops. This disease will cause your plants to wither, starting asymmetrically in the leaves.

If the plant has any immature fruit, they will begin to fall off, meanwhile the plant will start to look burnt. The stem of the plant will start to form stretch marks where any leaves attach.

The rest of the stem will then start to observe linear discolorations. The formation of cancerous looking spots and blisters on the stem and leaves is not an uncommon occurrence. Mature fruit will often form discolorations that have a dark center surrounded by a white opaque halo.

Bacterial Canker
The canker bacteria is the bacteria that causes the most damage in the crop because it will cause the plant to start to wilt, starting with the leaves.

Bacterial spot

There are two species of bacteria responsible for Bacterial Spot: Xanthomonas axonopodis and X. vesicatoria. These bacterial illnesses is considere to be fairly damage to the tomato crop because it provokes wounds on the surface.

These wounds will have different characteristics depending on which state of development the fruit is in. When the infected fruit is still immature, the spots will have a woody appearance surrounded by halos.

The mature fruit on the other hand will still have the spots that look to be make of wood, but will not have the halos surrounding them. The bacteria that cause this disease are transmit by both wind and rain splash.

Bacterial Speck

The cause of Bacterial Speck is the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. This bacteria attacks the leaves of the plant and causes them to turn an off-green to brow color that is surround by a yellow line. Edges and at the apex of leaves are the most damaged by this disease.

If the disease spreads sufficiently, the leaf will turn a yellowish color before ultimately falling off, leaving the plants fruit exposed to the sun. The fruit will also acquire circular brown spots that are delimite by a dark green halo.

These spots will eventually turn crusty, but unlike several of the other diseases that affect the tomato fruit, does not actually affect the epidermis of the fruit. This bacteria is spread through the air, rain splash, and the clothing, tools, and hands of anyone that happens to be working the fields.

Bacterial Speck
The bacterial speck causes the leaf to turn yellow and begin to fall and leave the plant exposed to the sun.

Spinal necrosis or hollow stem

Hollow Stem disease is cause by Pseudomonas corrugata, P. mediterranea, and P. viridiflava. The wounds that this infection causes are primarily observable in the stem, which will start showing dark spots that eventually start to crack.

If the stem is cut open, you will be able to observe that the inside has turn a significantly more pale color than normal, and you will see the formation of several hollow holes. The leaves of the tomato plant will turn yellow and start to wilt, before eventually falling off.

The tomato plant reacts to this disease by growing new adventitious roots. These bacteria are disperse both by irrigation water and whoever happens to be working on the tomato crop that particular day.

Spinal necrosis
Hollow stem disease causes the stem to open and the leaves turn yellow.

Bacterial Wilt

The bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum is responsible for the disease call Bacterial Wilt and is one of the world’s most important pathogenic bacteria in plants.

due to the vast losses that it provokes in a wide range of crops. This disease is characterize by a sudden wilting of the tomato plant where before you had a perfectly healthy plant.

The bacteria that cause this disease will infect the xylem of the plant, but this will not show up until there is a significant buildup of bacteria in the plant. Once there is a significant population in the plant’s vascular tissue, you will be able to observe stains on the exterior that look like dark wounds, and if you open up part of the stem, the sap will be more viscous.

This disease is spread through irrigation water or contact with laborers.

Bacterial Wilt
Bacterial wilt can be transmitted through water or through contact with the plant if the plant is damaged.

Soft Stem Rot

Soft Stem Rot is cause by Pectobacterium carotovorum. The observable symptoms of this bacterial illnesses will show up in the stem as a dark stain that will be color a dark green with a somewhat viscous consistency.

If the stain happens to develop near the root of the flower, the entire flower will be overtake by the disease. This infection can cause a sudden wilting or even death of the plant. If there are any wounds cause by either workers or insects, the fruit can be infect leaving them looking cloven with a dark coloration and a watery texture. The fruit will eventually deform into a viscous mass that will eventually fall to the ground.

Soft Stem Rot
The symptoms of the soft stem rot will show on the stem as a dark green viscous spot this disease can kill the plant if it spreads.

Advantages brought by an adequate tutoring system

The infection of these bacterial-diseases in your tomato crops will usuall be cause by the responsible bacteria.

These wounds can either be cause by workers that are doing their normal duties while tending the crops, or through the actions of some insects that feed on your plants. When you use a tutoring system you provide your crops with an adequate growing area to distribute itself.

Add an adequate drainage system to your field, the combination will ensure that your crops have the perfect humidity. By avoiding the exposure of your crops to long periods of excessive humidity, you avoid several diseases.

By using HORTOMALLAS® crop support netting you reduce the probabilities that your crops will become infected by bacterial illnesses.

HORTOMALLAS® crop support netting
The HORTOMALLAS® trellis net is a good option because it reduces the possibility that the plant will contract any of these viruses.

Agrochemical treatment against tomato bacteria

A list of the various chemicals that can be use to treat these diseases of the tomato crop are: Acibenzolar-S-methyl, Bacillus subtilis soil inoculation, Streptomycin, Copper(II) hydroxide, Kasugamycin, Mancozeb+copper, Dicopper chloride trihydroxide, Dicopper chloride trihydroxide 39% + Mancozeb 30%, Copper(I) Oxide, and Dicopper chloride trihydroxide + Kasugamycin.

In order to ensure that the process of disinfection, its recommend to apply a combination of these products.

Also, agrochemicals for the control of diseases are preventative.

References

FAO. (2013). El cultivo de tomate con buenas prácticas agrícolas en la agricultura urbana y periurbana. Recuperado el 28 de septiembre de 2015 de http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3359s.pdf

Productores de hortalizas. (2006). Plagas y enfermedades del tomate. Guía de identificación y manejo. México. Recuperado el 28 de septiembre de 2015 de http://vegetablemdonline.ppath.cornell.edu/NewsArticles/Tomato_Spanish.pdf

Sosa, Mirta. (2013). Guía para el reconocimiento de enfermedades en el cultivo de tomate. Formosa, Argentina. Recuperado el 28 septiembre de 2015 de http://inta.gob.ar/documentos/guia-para-el-reconocimiento-de-enfermedades-en-el-cultivo-de-tomate/at_multi_download/file/INTA_Guia_de_Reconocimiento_de_Enfermedades_en_el_Cultivo_de_Tomate.pdf

Argerich, C.; Troilo, L.; Rodriguez Fazzone, M.; et al. ( Manual de buenas prácticas agrícolas en la cadena de tomate

http://www.monografias.com/trabajos101/enfermedades-bacterianas-del-tomate/enfermedades-bacterianas-del-tomate.shtml
  • hortomallas-cuadro-25x25
    Select options

    HORTOMALLAS®
    Trellis Net for Vegetable Tutoring (25x25cm mesh)

    MXN $430.68MXN $10,678.26 + I.V.A. (1 pieza)
  • Select options

    HORTOMALLAS®
    Vegetable Support Netting (15x17cm mesh)

    MXN $481.00MXN $9,481.15 + I.V.A. (1 pieza)
  • Select options

    HORTOMALLAS®
    Trellis Netting for a Tutoring System (12.5×12.5cm mesh)

    MXN $606.32MXN $6,916.10 + I.V.A. (1 pieza)

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